- Embedding ... Fine-tuning ... RAG ... Search ... Clustering ... Recommendation ... Anomaly Detection ... Classification ... Dimensional Reduction. ...find outliers
- Prompting vs AI Model Fine-Tuning vs AI Embeddings
- AI Solver ... Algorithms ... Administration ... Model Search ... Discriminative vs. Generative ... Optimizer ... Train, Validate, and Test
- Math for Intelligence ... Finding Paul Revere ... Social Network Analysis (SNA) ... Dot Product ... Kernel Trick
- Search (where results are ranked by relevance to a query string)
- Clustering (where text strings are grouped by similarity)
- Recommendations (where items with related text strings are recommended)
- Anomaly Detection (where outliers with little relatedness are identified)
- Classification (where text strings are classified by their most similar label)
- Dimensional Reduction
- ...find outliers ... diversity measurement (where similarity distributions are analyzed)
AI embeddings are a way for computers to understand the meaning of words, images, and other types of data. They are created using machine learning algorithms, which learn to represent the data in a way that captures its relationships to other data. For example, a text embedding algorithm might learn to map words to a vector space in which similar words are close to each other and dissimilar words are far apart.
Once embeddings have been created, they can be used as input to a variety of machine learning models. For example, text embeddings can be used to train a machine translation model, which can then translate text from one language to another. Image embeddings can be used to train an image classification model, which can then identify different objects in images. Graph embeddings can be used to train a node classification model, which can then identify different types of nodes in a network.
Embeddings are a powerful tool that can be used to improve the performance of machine learning models on a wide variety of tasks. By learning to represent data in a lower-dimensional space, embeddings can help machine learning models to learn more complex patterns and relationships in the data.
Imagine you have a big bag of words, and you want to teach a computer to understand the meaning of those words. You could start by grouping the words together based on their similarity. For example, you might put the words "cat," "dog," and "animal" in one group, and the words "red," "blue," and "green" in another group.
Once you have grouped the words together, you can teach the computer to represent each group of words with a number. This is called an embedding. For example, you might give the group of words "cat," "dog," and "animal" the embedding 1, and the group of words "red," "blue," and "green" the embedding 2.
Now, when the computer sees a new word, it can try to find the group of words that the new word is most similar to. This will give the computer a good idea of what the new word means.
Embeddings can be used to represent not only words, but also images, sounds, and other types of data. This makes them a very powerful tool for machine learning models.
Here is an example of how embeddings can be used in a machine learning model:
Imagine you are training a machine translation model to translate text from English to Spanish. You would start by creating embeddings for both English and Spanish words. Then, you would train the machine translation model to predict the Spanish embedding for a given English embedding.
Once the machine translation model is trained, it can be used to translate text from English to Spanish by predicting the Spanish embedding for each English word in the text, and then converting the Spanish embeddings to Spanish words.
AI Encoding & AI Embedding
The terms "AI encodings" and "AI embeddings" are sometimes used interchangeably, but there is a subtle difference between the two.
- Encodings are a general term for any representation of data that is used by a Machine Learning (ML) model. This could be a one-hot encoding, a bag-of-words representation, or a more complex representation such as a word embedding.
- Embeddings are a specific type of AI encoding that is learned from data. Embeddings are typically represented as vectors of real numbers, and they capture the meaning and context of the data they represent.
In other words, all embeddings are encodings, but not all encodings are embeddings. Here are some examples of AI encodings that are not embeddings:
- One-hot Encoding is a simple way to represent categorical data as a vector. For example, the word "dog" would be represented as a vector of 100 zeros, with a single 1 at the index corresponding to the word "dog" in a vocabulary of 100 words.
- Bag-of-words is a more sophisticated way to represent text data as a vector. This involves counting the number of times each word appears in a document, and then representing the document as a vector of these counts.
AI Embeddings are a type of representation of text that captures the meaning of the text. This can be used for tasks such as search, classification, and recommendation. allow the model to search in a “database” and return the best result. Here are some examples of AI Embeddings:
- Word embeddings: are a type of embedding that represents words as vectors of real numbers. These vectors are typically learned from a large corpus of text, and they capture the meaning and context of the words they represent.
- Image embeddings: are a type of embedding that represents images as vectors of real numbers. These vectors are typically learned from a large dataset of images, and they capture the visual features of the images they represent.
- Graph embeddings: Graph embeddings are used to represent nodes and edges in a graph in a way that captures their relationships to each other. This is useful for a variety of network analysis tasks, such as community detection, link prediction, and node classification.
- Audio embeddings: Audio embeddings are used to represent audio signals in a way that captures their acoustic features. This is useful for a variety of audio processing tasks, such as speech recognition, music classification, and sound event detection.
In addition to these general types of embeddings, there are also more specialized types of embeddings that have been developed for specific tasks or applications. For example, there are embeddings for code, video, and chemical compounds.
Embedding Use Cases
- projecting an input into another more convenient representation space. For example we can project (embed) faces into a space in which face matching can be more reliable. | Chomba Bupe
- a mapping of a discrete — categorical — variable to a vector of continuous numbers. In the context of neural networks, embeddings are low-dimensional, learned continuous vector representations of discrete variables. Neural Network embeddings are useful because they can reduce the dimensionality of categorical variables and meaningfully represent categories in the transformed space. Neural Network Embeddings Explained | Will Koehrsen - Towards Data Science
- a relatively low-dimensional space into which you can translate high-dimensional vectors. Embeddings make it easier to do Machine Learning (ML) on large inputs like sparse vectors representing words. Ideally, an embedding captures some of the semantics of the input by placing semantically similar inputs close together in the embedding space. An embedding can be learned and reused across models. Embeddings | Machine Learning Crash Course
By employing techniques like Word Embeddings, Sentence Embeddings, or Contextual embedding, vector embeddings provide a compact and meaningful representation of textual data. Word embeddings, for instance, map words to fixed-length vectors, where words with similar meanings are positioned closer to one another in the vector space. This allows for efficient semantic search, information retrieval, and language understanding tasks.
Embeddings have 3 primary purposes:
- Finding nearest neighbors in the embedding space. These can be used to make recommendations based on user interests or cluster categories.
- As input to a Machine Learning (ML) model for a supervised task.
- For visualization of concepts and relations between categories.
How to Generate the Correct Embeddings
- Vector Embeddings: From the Basics to Production | Sam Partee - Partee.IO
- How to Get the Right Vector Embeddings | Yujian Tang - The New Stack ... A comprehensive introduction to vector embeddings and how to generate them with popular open source models.
- Choosing the Right Embedding Model: A Guide for LLM Applications | Ryan Nguyen - Medium
To generate the right embeddings, you need to consider the following factors:
The type of data you are embedding: Are you embedding text, images, videos, or something else? Different types of data require different embedding models. For example, you would use a different model to embed text than images.
The task you are using the embeddings for: What do you want to do with the embeddings? Are you using them for classification, regression, or something else? The task you are using the embeddings for will affect the type of embedding model you choose and the parameters you use to train it.
The size of your dataset: How much data do you have to train your embedding model? If you have a small dataset, you may need to use a simpler embedding model.
The resources you have available: How much time and computing power do you have to train your embedding model? More complex embedding models require more training time and computing power.
Once you have considered these factors, you can choose an embedding model and train it on your data. Here is a general overview of the process:
1. Choose an embedding model. There are many different embedding models available, both pre-trained and trainable. Some popular embedding models include Word2Vec, Global Vectors for Word Representation (GloVe), FastText, BERT, and ResNet-50. 2. Preprocess your data. This may involve cleaning your data, removing stop words, and converting text to lowercase. 3. Train the embedding model. This process can be time-consuming, depending on the size and complexity of your dataset and the embedding model you are using. 4. Evaluate the embedding model. Once the model is trained, you should evaluate its performance on a held-out test set. This will help you to determine if the model is able to generate good embeddings for your data. 5. Use the embedding model. Once you are satisfied with the performance of the embedding model, you can use it to generate embeddings for your data and use those embeddings in your downstream task.
Here are some additional tips for generating good embeddings:
- Use a large and diverse dataset to train your embedding model.
- Use a pre-trained embedding model if possible. This can save you a lot of time and effort, especially if you have a small dataset.
- Fine-tune the pre-trained embedding model on your data if necessary. This can improve the performance of the embedding model on your downstream task.
- Use a hyperparameter tuning library to tune the parameters of your embedding model. This can help you to find the best parameters for your data and task.
If you are new to embedding, start with a pre-trained embedding model and fine-tuning it on your data. This is a relatively easy way to get started with embeddings and generate good results.
- New and improved embedding model ... We are excited to announce a new embedding model which is significantly more capable, cost effective, and simpler to use.
Embeddings are a numerical representation of text that can be used to measure the relateness between two pieces of text. Our second generation embedding model, text-embedding-ada-002 is a designed to replace the previous 16 first-generation embedding models at a fraction of the cost. An embedding is a vector (list) of floating point numbers. The distance between two vectors measures their relatedness. Small distances suggest high relatedness and large distances suggest low relatedness.