# Quantum Communications

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- U.S. Department of Energy Unveils Blueprint for Quantum Internet | Brookhaven National Laboratory - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)
- One-kilometer breakthrough made in quantum field | Phys.org
- Quantum Optics | PicoQuant
- Explainer: What is quantum communication? | Martin Giles - MIT Technology Review
- Quantum entanglement breakthrough could boost encryption, secure communications | Daphne Leprince-Ringuet - ZDNet
- Scientists create quantum sensor that covers entire radio frequency spectrum | The Army Research Laboratory - Phys.org
- The Quantum Internet Is Emerging, One Experiment at a Time | Anil Ananthaswamy - Scientific American Breakthrough demonstrations using defective diamonds, high-flying drones, laser-bathed crystals and other exotica suggest practical, unhackable quantum networks are within reach
- Researchers create 'quantum drums' to store qubits — one step closer to groundbreaking internet speed and security | Christopher Harper - Tom's Hardware ... Storing quantum data by converting light into sonic vibrations.
- Quantum entanglement expands to city-sized networks | Tim Wogan - Physics World ... “When the photon comes to the first node, it gets entangled – you basically do a gate operation between the photon and one of the qubits in the memory,” explains Harvard’s Mikhail Lukin, “Then the photon comes to another node, you do another logic gate between the photon and the memory, and then eventually you measure a photon. It’s like a distributed quantum computer.”

Quantum communication (Quantum Internet) takes advantage of the laws of quantum physics to transport and protect data. Relevant technologies include quantum repeaters, quantum memory, quantum interfaces (transferring qubit states from photons at one wavelength to another, which is necessary for connecting or scaling quantum computers), and quantum key distribution (exchanging cryptographic keys in a quantum state using qubits). Quantum networking has seen significant progress over the past decade with more fundamental breakthroughs expected in the near future. Standards and best practices for reliable and reproducible performance measurement are needed to accelerate progress and enable broad adoption. 'Advanced Communications Technologies Standards' | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

Quantum entanglement, and what it mean for the future of the Internet where information is created, stored and moved around in ways that mirror the bizarre behavior of the quantum world - sending quantum information instead of classical information. Quantum entanglement has a number of potential applications in quantum communications, including:

**Quantum Key Distribution (QKD)**: QKD is a method of creating and distributing secure keys for encryption. In QKD, two parties, Alice and Bob, share a pair of entangled particles. Alice then measures her particle, and Bob can then use her measurement to decode a message that Alice sends him. Any attempt to eavesdrop on the message will destroy the entanglement, so QKD is a very secure way to communicate.**Quantum Teleportation**:: Quantum teleportation is a method of transferring the quantum state of one particle to another particle. This could be used to transmit information between distant locations without physically moving the particles.**Superdense Coding**:: Superdense coding is a method of sending two classical bits of information using only one qubit. This could be used to increase the efficiency of quantum communications.

In the future, quantum entanglement could be used to create a quantum internet, which would be a much more secure and efficient way to communicate than the current internet. A quantum internet would use quantum entanglement to transmit information between quantum computers and other devices. This would allow for applications such as secure communication, distributed computing, and quantum sensing.

However, there are still many challenges that need to be overcome before a quantum internet can be realized. These challenges include:

**The need for long-distance quantum entanglement**:: Quantum entanglement can only be maintained over short distances. This is because quantum particles are easily disturbed by their environment. Researchers are working on developing new techniques to maintain quantum entanglement over long distances.**The need for quantum repeaters**:: Quantum repeaters are devices that can amplify and regenerate quantum signals. This is necessary to extend the range of quantum entanglement. AI can be used to develop new routing algorithms and to optimize the performance of quantum networks.**The need for quantum error correction**:: Quantum signals are susceptible to errors. Quantum error correction is a technique that can be used to correct these errors. Quantum error correction is a field of research that deals with the correction of errors that occur in quantum communications. AI can be used to develop new quantum error correction codes and to improve the efficiency of existing codes.

# Products

here are a number of companies that offer quantum communications products, including:

**Quantum Optics Jena**: is German company that provides innovative quantum optical solutions with outstanding performance for secure communication- Quantum Optics Jena ... confidence in data security via quantum communication

**ID Quantique**: is a Swiss company that develops and manufactures quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. Their products are used by governments, financial institutions, and telecommunications companies around the world.- ID Quantique ... Quantum Key Management System (Q-KMS) is a networking framework to route symmetric cryptographic keys between users, as opposed to conventional KMS that are more centralized solution that store, distribute, and manage life cycle of mostly asymmetric cryptographic keys.

**Qubitekk**: is a Canadian company that develops quantum communications products for the defense and aerospace industries. Their products include QKD systems, quantum random number generators, and quantum sensors.- Qubitekk ... Introducing the nation’s first industry-led, commercially available quantum network

**PicoQuant**: is a German company that manufactures optical components and systems for quantum communications. Their products include single-photon sources, detectors, and modulators.- PicoQuant ... formulate, manipulate, and process it using physical systems that operate on quantum mechanical principles. PicoQuant quantum communications products

**Quantum Communications**: is a Lebanese company that develops and manufactures quantum communications products for the Middle East and North Africa region. Their products include QKD systems, quantum random number generators, and quantum sensors.

# Research Institutions

These research institutions are working on developing new technologies for quantum communications, such as quantum repeaters and quantum networks. These technologies are essential for the future of quantum communications, and they are expected to be commercially available in the coming years:

**The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the United States**: