Enterprise Architecture (EA)

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In order to bring measurable value to their firms, Enterprise Architects of Tomorrow must understand, utilize, and evangelize the latest technologies driving the industry. These current trends include Predictive Analytics, Deep Learning, prescriptive analytics, and Machine Learning (ML). All of these trends use current data to make predictions about unknown future events. Lesa Moné | LeanIX

Architecture Attributes for AI

  • Variables type
  • Variable scaling
  • Cost function
  • Type of neural network - CNN, RNN, FFN
  • Number of layers, hidden
  • Type of layers
    • LSTM, Dense, Highway
    • Convolutional
    • Pooling
  • Weight initialization type
  • Number of nodes
  • Type of activation function - linear, Sigmoid, ReLU
  • Dropout rate (or not)
  • Threshold

Architecture drives data (management) which is the 'oil of machine intelligence'

AI cannot be deployed in isolation; it needs Architecture
Raj Ramesh AI cannot be deployed in isolation. Recently, Andrew Ng, one of the foremost Artificial Intelligence researchers who also built the AI teams at Google and Baidu said so in a Forbes interview. "AI technology is exciting, but it is also immature. At the risk of sounding sacrilegious, AI technology in isolation is not useful. It needs a lot of customization to figure out exactly how it fits into your business concept. Doing that requires a broad understanding of your company and a reasonably deep understanding of AI. Exploiting the value of AI today requires a team that understands the business context and has cross-functional knowledge of things like how to fit AI into your hospital or how to use AI in your logistics network. Without cross-functional knowledge of how your business runs, it is difficult to customize AI appropriately to drive specific business results." In this video, I build upon this basis and use an example to illustrate the need for AI and Architecture to be considered together.

Is business architecture dead? Why focus on artificial intelligence?
Raj Ramesh Is there a place for business architecture in the new artificial intelligence (AI) centric world? Some viewers have asked me why I'm focusing more on AI and on architecture, and here's my short response. www.topsigma.com www.linkedin.com/in/rajramesh

Why do you need an AI Framework and an AI Strategy?
Raj Ramesh The terms framework and strategy are often confusing. If your organization is ready to use AI in its digital transformation (and it better be because the future of the digital organization will have lots of AI), then it needs a great strategy. Here is discuss how you can think about AI strategy and AI frameworks.

A Blueprint for Scaling AI
Raj Ramesh AI is a powerful technology that can help companies increase revenue, provide better customer service, and improve operational efficiencies. In this video, I share some things to consider as you bring AI into your organization.


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  • Capability - what ability to do something; in terms of expertise and capacity realized by its people, processes, information, and technology; focused on specific business outcomes. Used for strategic planning purposes on its own, a capability literally has no function.
    • Examples of Capabilities include: Capability to sell a new Product, Capability for eCommerce, Capability for rapid merger and acquisition activities, Capability to survive the credit crunch, Capability to conduct research, Capability to achieve delivery objectives and be ready for future unknown challenges. An example for capabilities can be ‘Manage Offers’ – the skills required by the role-players in effectively managing the business processes – effective in presenting the offer with brochures, advertisements etc, effective in negotiating with the customers to make them accept the offer, effective in shipping the goods quickly to reach the customer as well effective in collecting checks at the shortest possible time from customers.
  • Function - what something does or is used for; encapsulating terms such as value chain, process area, capability, business function, etc. a function needs to be linked to a capability in order to do anything. The people who possess the specialized skills found in a functional area are typically organized into a system of hierarchically distributed authority (i.e., reporting relationships).
    • Examples of Functions include: Sales, Mаrketing, Supply Chаin Management, Finаnciаl Mаnаgement, Operations, Customer Relationship Management, Product Management, Supplier/Pаrtner Relаtionship Mаnаgement. An example can be ‘Sales Function’ which includes the related processes of fulfill an offer, advertise the offer, manage funds for offers, analyze need for offers and fine tune processes of similar nature as required for effectively managing it. Functions help manage processes effectively.
  • Activity - how the functional objective is achieved; traditionally a granular very specific action. One of the more common work activities with a clearly defined beginning and ending is the task. Task descriptions are often referred to as procedures.
    • Examples of Activities include: To answer phones, make travel arrangements and cover reception during lunch, monthly meeting with team to walk through plan, make adjustments to the strategy, Send to CEO for review and set meeting to discuss
  • Process - Series of services together in some way to achieve some kind of outcome; may include systematic purposeful concepts, activities, courses of action, sequences, structures, interactions, rules, policies, and procedures that govern a system or enterprise. The process view is a horizontal view; it is concerned with flows; it is often the case that no one individual is accountable for processes that cross functional boundaries.
    • An example may be ‘Fulfill an offer’ – series of activities can be make an offer to the customer, accept offer by the customer, provide terms and conditions related to the offer to customers, accept the terms and conditions by the customer, dispatch the goods to the customer with invoice, collect the amount and close the deal.
  • Service - everything can be represented as a service; function and capability are linked together in order to create a service. A physical service enables access to a set of one or more capabilities consistent with constraints and policies.
    • An example can be ‘Assign Sales person’ – essentially through a mechanism that is to be followed for assigning a particular sales person on availability to the customer – the service that helps to locate the next available sales person to be booked. Another example can be ‘update customer details’ as they apply for the offer through a system/application. Remember these services can be called upon by other processes also – ‘Assign sales person’ can be used to assign sales person for solving a customer complaint as well.

Any organization that designs a system (defined broadly) will produce a design whose structure is a copy of the organization's communication structure. — Melvin E. Conway - Conway's Law

Enterprise Architecture Frameworks

What is Enterprise Architecture (EA) and why is it important? EA concepts explained in a simple way.
Raj Ramesh Enterprise architecture is a way to understand how an organization works. We have often made it too complex in some cases and worried about the mechanics of EA rather than focusing on the value it provides. Here, we focus on understanding the core concepts after which we can worry about the mechanics. EA should be the foundation for any business transformation. This video was created by a collaboration between Christine and Raj to clarify what EA is and how it can help organizations. www.topsigma.com

YOW! 2017 Gregor Hohpe - Enterprise Architecture = Architecting the Enterprise? #YOW
Architects in the enterprise are often regarded as ivory tower residents who bestow their utopian plans upon project teams in the form of colorful diagrams that bear little to no resemblance to reality. The most suspicious in this group are often the “Enterprise Architects” who are perceived as being furthest from actual technical problems. However, large-scale IT operation and transformation require transparency across hundreds or thousands of applications running on all sorts of middleware in data centers around the globe. The very enterprise architects are likely the only ones who stand a chance to bring transparency into such an environment and who can direct IT investments in the hundreds of millions of Euros towards modernization and run-cost reduction. This sounds a lot more exciting and valuable than drawing pictures! This session takes a serious but light-hearted look at the role of enterprise architects in modern IT organizations. Gregor is a recognized thought leader on asynchronous messaging and service-oriented architectures. He is widely known as co-author of the seminal book “Enterprise Integration Patterns” and as frequent speaker at conferences around the world. He is an active member of the IEEE Software editorial advisory board. He has documented his experience as an architect driving IT transformation in the eBook "37 Things One Architect Knows". For more on YOW! conferences, visit https://www.yowconference.com.au

Rethinking enterprise architecture for DevOps, agile, & cloud native organizations by Michael Cote
Current application theory says that all responsibility for software should be pushed down to the actual DevOps-style team writing, delivering, and running the software. This leaves Enterprise Architect role in the dust, seemingly killing it off. In addition to this being disquieting to EAs out there who have steep mortgage payments and other expensive hobbies, it seems to drop out the original benefits of enterprise architecture, namely oversight of all IT-related activities to make sure things both don’t go wrong (e.g., with spending, poor tech choices, problematic integration, etc.) and that things, rather, go right. I’ve spoken with several EA teams over the past few years about the changing nature of how EAs can help in a DevOps- and cloud-native-driven culture. I’ll share their experiences including what type of EA help is actually needed and helps organizations thrive. Michael Cote From Pivotal Michael Coté works at Pivotal on the advocate team. He’s been an industry analyst at RedMonk and 451 Research, worked in corporate strategy and M&A at Dell in software and cloud, and was a programmer for a decade before all that. He does several weekly (mostly) tech podcasts, writes a column on Agile & DevOps for The Register, blogs at Cote.io, and is @cote in Twitter. Subscribe to Devoxx on YouTube @ https://bit.ly/devoxx-youtube Like Devoxx on Facebook @

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Enterprise Architecture concepts - Gartner's framework and comparisons
The followings are the major contents of this presentation: - Brief overview on Enterprise Architecture (EA) in relation to Business architecture - Introduction to Gartner's Enterprise architecture framework and its components - Comparison of the four EA methodologies, such as, Zachman, TOGAF, FEA and Gartner

The OpenGroup Architecture Framework (TOGAF®)

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TOGAF® Standard, Version 9.2
The TOGAF® Standard, a standard of The Open Group, is a proven Enterprise Architecture methodology and framework used by the world’s leading organizations to improve business efficiency. The TOGAF Standard, Version 9.2 provide improved guidance, correcting errors, improving the document structure, and removing obsolete content. Key enhancements made in this version include updates to the Business Architecture and the Content Metamodel. All of these changes make the TOGAF framework easier to use and maintain. It is the most prominent and reliable Enterprise Architecture standard, ensuring consistent standards, methods, and communication among Enterprise Architecture professionals. Those professionals who are fluent in the TOGAF approach enjoy greater industry credibility, job effectiveness, and career opportunities. This approach helps practitioners avoid being locked into proprietary methods, utilize resources more efficiently and effectively, and realize a greater return on investment. The standard is constantly evolving as a result of the work delivered by members of The Open Group Architecture Forum and TOGAF certification has been achieved by over 100,000 individuals worldwide. It retains the major features and structure of the previous version of the standard including: Modular Structure: The TOGAF standard has a modular structure. The modular structure supports: * Greater usability – defined purpose for each part; can be used in isolation as a standalone set of guidelines * Incremental adoption of the TOGAF standard * Accompanying the standard is a portfolio of guidance material, known as the TOGAF Library, to support the practical application of the TOGAF approach Content Framework: The TOGAF standard includes a content framework to drive greater consistency in the outputs that are created when following the Architecture Development Method (ADM). The TOGAF content framework provides a detailed model of architectural work products. Extended Guidance: The TOGAF standard features an extended set of concepts and guidelines to support the establishment of an integrated hierarchy of architectures being developed by teams within larger organizations that operate within an overarching architectural governance model. In particular, the following concepts are included: * Partitioning – a number of techniques and considerations on how to partition the various architectures within an enterprise. * Architecture Repository – a logical information model for an Architecture Repository which can be used as an integrated store for all outputs created by executing the ADM. * Capability Framework – a structured definition of the organization, skills, roles, and responsibilities required to operate an effective enterprise architecture capability. The TOGAF standard also provides guidance on a process that can be followed to identify and establish an appropriate architecture capability. Architectural Styles: The TOGAF standard is designed to be flexible and it can be used with various architectural styles. Examples are provided both in the TOGAF standard, in Part III: ADM Guidelines & Techniques, and the TOGAF Library. Together these comprise a set of supporting materials that show in detail how the ADM can be applied to specific situations; for example: * The varying uses of iteration that are possible within the ADM and when each technique should be applied The various types of architecture development required within an enterprise and how these relate to one another Further details can be found in The Open Group library: https://publications.opengroup.org/ W182 White Paper: An Introduction to the TOGAF Standard, Version 9.2 N180 Reference Cards: The TOGAF Standard, Version 9.2 Overview Presenter: Mike Lambert, Fellow of The Open Group and Chair of The Open Group Architecture

TOGAF® Standard 9.2 - Supporting EA and Business Transformation
Agenda - Organizational transformation and innovation. How to be prepared. - Best practices and open standards application - Enterprise Architecture and Digital Transformation - Agile EA - TOGAF Standards 9.2 and its evolution journey to address the new challenges and trends. TOGAF 9.2 Version Strategy: - The Standard suited to deliver an EA practice: Core set of concepts - General Practice stands... But it needs to be used following different approaches: Adapt and Adopt - Guidance, decoupled from the main body of the standard but ... Aligned and related with it New Features: - Business Scenarios - Business Capabilities - Value Stream - Reference Models - Integrating Risk and Security within the TOGAF Enterprise Architecture - Using the TOGAF Framework to define and govern Service-Oriented Architecture - The TOGAF Leaders Guide for establishing and evolving an EA Capability - Practitioners approach to Developing Enterprise Architecture Following the TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM) Do we need to apply a new EA paradigm all the time? Enterprise Agility -- Five Dimensions: - Alertness - Accessibility - Decisiveness - Swiftness - Flexibility The TOGAF Standard supports business Transformation and innovation. TOGAF 9.2 Version Strategy: - The Standard delivers an EA practice: Core set of concepts. - General Practice but it needs to be used following different approaches: Adapt and Adopt - Guidance, decoupled from the main body of the standard but ... Aligned and related with it. Presenter: Sonia Gonzalez Paredes, Architecture Forum Director, The Open Group Sonia has 20 years experience as a consultant in Enterprise Architecture, Enterprise Governance of IT and IT Service Management, Information Systems design and analysis, Business Process Management, Service Oriented Architecture and Systematic Innovation. Sonia is certified in TOGAF®, ArchiMate® and Cobit 5, and has professional experience as a project manager and researcher.

DOD Architecture Framework (DoDAF)

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Demystifying DoDAF 2.02 - Introduction
This 2-hour seminar introduces DoDAF 2.02 at a high-level aiming at removing some of the confusion associated with terminology and DoDAF component relationships. SPEC Innovations Training Services - https://www.specinnovations.com/training/ © 1993-2014 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company.

Exploring DoDAF and Other Architecture Frameworks in CORE by Ron Kratzke
VitechCorp The CORE toolset includes a Systems Architecture schema developed to support the Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF) description. This webinar will discuss the origins of operational and system architecture principles and the overall approach taken by CORE to support development of operational architectures. The presentation's focus will be on the organization of DoDAF -- one of many architecture framework descriptions available in CORE -- and methods for populating the CORE system architecture schema.

Zachman Framework

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Introduction to Enterprise Architecture
The Zachman Framework™ is an enterprise ontology and metamodel for enterprise architecture. which provides a formal and structured way of viewing and defining an enterprise. The ontology is a two dimensional classification schema that reflects the intersection between two historical classifications. The Zachman Framework is not a methodology, like the TOGAF® Architecture Development Method (ADM), but rather a template describing how different abstract ideas are viewed from different perspectives. It is an ontology matrix simply that helps to form a logical structure for classifying and organizing artifacts developed in enterprise architecture. Zachman is focused on identifying the different viewpoints that might be relevant for different purposes while TOGAF is focused on the process of developing architectures. Presenter: John A. Zachman

Zachman Framework Overview
Benjamin Arnold Brief overview of the Zachman framework

Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA)

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D006 Can TOGAF® help Enterprise Architects Implement the Federal Architecture and Federal Segment

What is DATA REFERENCE MODEL? What does DATA REFERENCE MODEL mean? DATA REFERENCE MODEL meaning - DATA REFERENCE MODEL definition - DATA REFERENCE MODEL explanation. The Data Reference Model (DRM) is one of the five reference models of the Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA). The DRM is a framework whose primary purpose is to enable information sharing and reuse across the United States federal government via the standard description and discovery of common data and the promotion of uniform data management practices. The DRM describes artifacts which can be generated from the data architectures of federal government agencies. The DRM provides a flexible and standards-based approach to accomplish its purpose. The scope of the DRM is broad, as it may be applied within a single agency, within a Community of Interest (COI), or cross-COI.

Business-Centric Methodology (BCM)

The OASIS Business-Centric Methodology (BCM) is a specification that provides business managers with a set of clearly defined methods with which to acquire agile and interoperable e-business information systems within communities of interests. Defining methods to acquire interoperable e-business information systems within communities of interest.

Mindmap: https://PRIMO.AI/BCM/BCM_MindMap_2003-10-18.bmp

ITIL - IT Service Management

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ITIL is the most widely recognized framework for IT and digitally enabled services in the world. It provides comprehensive, practical and proven guidance for establishing an effective service management system. ITIL Homepage | AXELOS ...AXELOS is a joint venture company, created in 2013 by the Cabinet Office on behalf of Her Majesty’s Government (HMG) in the United Kingdom and Capita plc, to manage, develop and grow the Global Best Practice portfolio.

The ITIL 4 Big Picture: Connecting Key Concepts
Create a flexible and effective architecture that delivers world-class IT-enabled services with the ITIL 4 key concepts.

ITIL® 4: What is Service Management? (Lesson 1/25)
ITIL® 4 Foundation eLearning Course, by Ivor Macfarlane (co-author of ITIL), Management Plaza Full course

ITIL 4 Foundation | ITIL 4 Foundation Training | What Is ITIL V4? | ITIL Certification | Simplilearn
In this tutorial on ITIL4 Foundation, we will explain why ITIL is important, what exactly it is, how it changed over time, some of its advantages, its different types, and the different ITIL certifications available. The tutorial will also help you understand how ITIL helps with maximizing value to clients by aligning the goals of the service provider along with the requirements of end users. Each of the iterations of ITIL are also explained in detail. Now, let's jump into this ITIL 4 Foundation tutorial.

Applying ITIL4 To Everyday Situations
In this webinar we look at how to use the Service Value System, Service Value Chain and Service Value Streams for effective service delivery and how the ITIL4 value stream principle can be applied in your IT service organisation. Axelos’ Akshay Anand, lead architect for the ITIL programme and ITSM product ambassador, shares his thoughts on the service value system and its applications with insight in to the service value chain and its associated activities. Prem Maheswaran from ManageEngine share how to apply these principles to tie data, process and technology and implement a new hire process using ManageEngine’s ITSM tool, ServiceDesk Plus. Discover more about ITIL4 : - Overview of the service value system - Understanding the six service value chain activities - Designing a service value stream - Using a new hire process example to explain how the three work together to create an effective onboarding workflow

Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI)

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For 25+ years, high-performing organizations have achieved clear, sustainable business results with ISACA®’s CMMI® maturity models. Originally created for the U.S. Department of Defense to assess the quality and capability of their software contractors, ISACA’s CMMI models have expanded beyond software engineering to help organizations around the world, in any industry, understand their current level of capability and performance and offer a guide to optimize business results. CMMI Institute

Transforming Organizational Capability and Performance Using CMMI V2.0 | Ronald Lear
Key Topics covered include: Operational Excellence Business Transformation Lean Transformation Lean Manufacturing Six Sigma Continuous Improvement Digital Transformation Cultural Transformation Agile & Agile Culture Business Process Management / iBPM Robotic Process Automation (RPA) Download the FREE 130 pages research report, the most comprehensive study of critical challenges and future trends within Operational Excellence. https://bit.ly/BTOEreport

CMMI V2 0 – What’s New WITH 2 0
Integration Technologies Group ITG presented an overview of the new CMMI Version 2.0 in our live webinar. We discussed the value it brings, provided some insight into some key changes, and discussed why the update is nothing to fear. Agenda: CMMI V2.0 Overview What’s New – Key Areas of Change Considerations for Implementation What are the main differences that will impact companies for CMMI 2.0? What is really required for estimating? Does senior leadership need to be involved? Will appraisals be more difficult? Will this make it more difficult to pass? Having an upcoming CMMI appraisal. Should you go for CMMI v1.3 or CMMI v2.0? When will services be released? What are the biggest challenges that any team should expect?

National Association of State Chief Information Officers (NASCIO)

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Data Management Maturity Achieving Best Practices Webinar

NASCIO and NIEM Working Together


A lean bureaucracy for the digital economy? Mark Schwartz, Enterprise Evangelist, Amazon AWS
What does Napoleon campaign in Russia has to do with Lean and digital transformation? Mark Schwartz draws a parallel between the leadtime for change, decision making and implementation on the battle field and the leadtime in large organizations and especially in IT. This incompatibility makes it impossible to respond to the very fast pace of change in today's digital economy. While reflecting on his past experience of CIO in a government organization, Mark explains why he believes one can make a bureaucracy Lean. More stories of Lean in digital are to be found on www.lean-digital-summit.com

What Does it Mean to Lead IT? - Mark Schwartz
What Does it Mean to Lead IT? Mark Schwartz, Author, The Art of Business Value and A Seat at the Table In an era of autonomous teams working directly with business users and product owners, what is the role of IT Leadership? We talk a lot about the role of CIOs in leading the transformation to DevOps and to digital services, but what then? What does an IT Leader do once an organization has embraced DevOps? And what does it mean to be an Agile CIO? For Mark Schwartz, this is a pressing issue. As a CIO leading a DevOps transformation in the most challenging of environments, he is facing an existential question. As he puts it: “um, what do I do now?” The literature on IT leadership does not concern itself with today’s advances in Agility and DevOps, and the Agile and DevOps worlds do not seem to talk much about what they expect IT leaders to be doing. An Agile CIO must do more than oversee Agile projects. In this session, Mr. Schwartz will bring the principles of Agility to bear on the practice of IT Leadership, and show just how deep a change is required in how we think about not just the craft of the IT leader, but the very basis of how IT fits into the enterprise. His conclusions are surprising and provocative. DOES17 London DevOps Enterprise Summit https://events.itrevolution.com/eur/

Mark Schwartz, DHS, CIS CIO shares how agencies are modernizing and accelerating the pace of IT
Mark Schwartz, Chief Information Officer, Department of Homeland Security, USCIS shares how working in the cloud enabled his department to be more effective. View more here https://oak.ctx.ly/r/3cz00

DOES14 - Mark Schwartz - U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services
How DevOps Can Fix Federal Government IT The Federal Government spends more than $80 billion each year on information technology. As the fiasco with healthcare.gov demonstrates, the results are not always good. Government IT programs are expensive and monolithic, and the lead time from a “mission need” to a deployed capability is often measured in years (in one of our agency’s programs, about 12 years!). IT systems are often difficult to use, and the US government’s online service offerings to citizens are far from meeting the expectations of a public that is used to Google, Facebook, and Twitter. The US government has only recently begun to adopt agile approaches, and only in a few agencies. But the results have been encouraging, and show that it is possible for the bureaucracy to be agile. DevOps, however is a game changer. At USCIS we have moved to a continuous integration, continuous delivery approach, and have begun experimenting with a DevOps model tailored to the needs of the government. By combining DevOps with some ideas taken from the Lean Startup movement, I believe we can cause a radical change in how the government does IT. We can dramatically reduce lead times and costs, improve the usability of systems, provide more transparency, create citizen-centric online services, and – importantly – significantly improve the government’s security posture.