Generative Adversarial Network (GAN)

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Comprised of two nets, pitting one against the other (thus the “adversarial”). GANs’ potential is huge, because they can learn to mimic any distribution of data. That is, GANs can be taught to create worlds eerily similar to our own in any domain: images, music, speech, prose. Discriminative algorithms map features to labels. They are concerned solely with that correlation. One way to think about generative algorithms is that they do the opposite. Instead of predicting a label given certain features, they attempt to predict features given a certain label. Generative adversarial networks (GAN) are from a different breed of networks, they are twins: two networks working together. GANs consist of any two networks (although often a combination of FFs and CNNs), with one tasked to generate content and the other has to judge content. The discriminating network receives either training data or generated content from the generative network. How well the discriminating network was able to correctly predict the data source is then used as part of the error for the generating network. This creates a form of competition where the discriminator is getting better at distinguishing real data from generated data and the generator is learning to become less predictable to the discriminator. This works well in part because even quite complex noise-like patterns are eventually predictable but generated content similar in features to the input data is harder to learn to distinguish. GANs can be quite difficult to train, as you don’t just have to train two networks (either of which can pose it’s own problems) but their dynamics need to be balanced as well. If prediction or generation becomes to good compared to the other, a GAN won’t converge as there is intrinsic divergence. Goodfellow, Ian, et al. “Generative adversarial nets.” Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems. 2014.

An example of self-supervised learning is generative adversarial networks, or GANs. These are generative models that are most commonly used for creating synthetic photographs using only a collection of unlabeled examples from the target domain. GAN models are trained indirectly via a separate discriminator model that classifies examples of photos from the domain as real or fake (generated), the result of which is fed back to update the GAN model and encourage it to generate more realistic photos on the next iteration. 14 Different Types of Learning in Machine Learning | Jason Brownlee - Machine Learning Mastery